One of the most important papers in library of the F.N.’s. Orthodontics is the well-known: "Design and construction of removable orthodontic appliance" by P.C. Adams, translated by professor Thomas Moullas.
A basic operation principle in orthodontic mechanical treatment is the fundamental law of motion by Isaac Newton stating that wherever there is an action F1, there is also an opposite force -F1, known as reaction.
The continuous development of the orthodontic brackets rendered the use of the palatal and lingual plates with active components such as palatal expanders and springs, substantial and effective.
In the international and national bibliography there is a wide range of brackets in the removable orthodontic appliances. As an example we mention the most important:
Perhaps the most widely used Adams bracket, the Scwharz bracket, the Ball Clasp, the Arrowhead Clasp, the circumferential, the triangular, the continuous, the Shouthend, the Band & Bar, and many more not so commonly used.
In its classic form the appliance includes a basic acrylic plate that fits into the palatal - lingual mucous membrane while a short labial bow is used as retainer and on the right and left, retaining brackets are used on the appropriate supporting teeth. The type and position of the brackets are used in a way that they do not cause obstructions to occlusion but to provide the maximum retaining.
In addition the use of active components such as palatal expanders and springs to be correct and balanced without causing the appearance of undesirable side effects.
Among the various removable appliances that are used, the most popular are:
• The Hawley Retainer and the Wraparound circumferential. The retainer appliances can be combined with immobilization of certain teeth (mostly of the frontal area) so that the risk of a relapse is reduced to the minimum regardless of the compliance of the patient with the consistent application of the removable appliance.
• The active Hawley with the addition of palatal expanders and springs
• The ones of Spring Retainer - Aligner type after a Set Up of frontal teeth mostly for minor crowding or mild relapses.
• Moreover on the removables it is possible to add acrylic teeth to residual areas after the completion of the orthodontic movements where the space is retained for future orthodontic restoration.
They are applied to both the upper and lower jaw and during their placement they have to be completely passive, without tensions that can cause side effects and attention to the excessive retaining.
According to the P.C. Adams their frequent replacement at regular intervals is also compulsory during the orthodontic Mechanical therapy.
Finally, with the new (Cubi-Ortho) techniques and the facilities that digital technology offers, many designs, shapes, colors can be easily adjusted to the appliance and make the favorite Hawley of the dentist’s office young patients.
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